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电磁辐射暴露评估系统-IT’IS

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    电磁辐射暴露评估系统-ITIS

     
      一、细胞电磁辐射暴露评估系统
    sXc

      二、动物电磁辐射暴露评估系统 sXv
      三、人体电磁辐射暴露评估系统 sXh


    IT’IS基金会企业介绍:

     

    IT’IS基金会是全球知名的从事信息技术研究的协会(IT'IS),是独立的,非营利性的基础研究机构,致力于改善和促进人们的生活质量。该基金会成立于1999年,由瑞士联邦理工学院发起,并得到全球无线通信行业以及一些政府机构的支持。  总部设在瑞士的苏黎世,该基金会已经获得了很高的世界声誉,主要从事以下研究领域:


    l   电磁感应技术

    l   计算电磁学在复杂的环境

    l   适用于复杂的解剖结构计算生命科学

    l   新的和优化的诊断/治疗/治疗规划过程和设备

    l   暴露评估/剂量/安全性/合规性评价

    l   电磁暴露系统生物医学研究


    IT'IS 致力于为提供科研和良好教育一个独立、积极、创新和连接各学科之间的研究环境。研究结果被广泛传播到科学界和公众通过同行评议的期刊文章、会议论文集,电视采访和白皮书。总的来说,我们的研究体现了我们要通过加强新型电磁技术的安全和质量级别来实实在在地影响人们的生活的承诺,来提高生活质量和使人延年益寿。组织研究的领域:

    l   EM研究

    l   IT'IS健康研究

    由来自学术界和政界的人组成董事会进行管理,Niels Kuster and Myles Capstick报道。

    我们邀请你去了解更多关于基金会的使命,特别是对我们的IT'IS健康研究。

    IT'IS Foundation

    The Foundation for Research on Information Technologies in Society (IT'IS) is the premier, independent, nonprofit research foundation dedicated to improving and advancing the quality of people’s lives. The Foundation was established in 1999 through the initiative and support of the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich (ETHZ), the global wireless communications industry, and several governmental agencies. Headquartered in Zurich, Switzerland, the Foundation already gained a world reputation in the following research fields:

           electromagnetics sensor technologies

           computational electromagnetics in complex environments

           computational life sciences applied to complex anatomies

           novel & optimized diagnostics/therapy/treatment planning processes and devices

           exposure assessments/dosimetry/safety/compliance evaluation

           electromagnetic exposure systems for biomedical research

    IT’IS endeavors to provide an independent, proactive, innovative and interdisciplinary research environment for the cultivation of sound science and research, and good education. Results are widely disseminated to the scientific community and the public through peer-reviewed journal articles, conference proceedings, television interviews, and white papers. Collectively, our research initiatives represent our commitment to making a tangible difference in people’s lives by enhancing the safety and quality of emerging electromagnetic technologies, improving the quality of life, and adding healthy life years. The research is organized in the areas:

           EM Research

           IT'IS for Health

    Governed by a diverse Board of Directors from academia and from the government, IT'IS is led by its Directors, Niels Kuster and Myles Capstick.

    We invite you to learn more about the Mission of the Foundation and in particular about our new research iniative IT'IS for Health.


     

    IT'IS 电磁暴露系统综述:

        电磁暴露系统的配置和设计是为了评估,例如健康风险,疗法的疗效或机制都与电磁场有联系。IT'IS基金会具有代表性的电磁暴露系统sX系列为细胞暴露(sXc )、脊椎动物暴露(sXv )、和人体暴露( sXh)

    sXc / sXv / sXh暴露系统的组织设计、优化,并构建高效、灵活的电磁暴露系统的承诺都提供最大的同质性、宽动态范围控制和各种各样的信号同时监控所有设备条件和环境参数;并提供支持协议。

    所有研究中有意义的结论的汇总都是处于精确的知识和严格控制下的曝光环境,这称为剂量测定法。在IT'IS中,评价,优化和安装调配都使用仿真平台 SEMCAD X。剂量测定的分析包括很多细节,如在培养皿中的精确半月板模型或者人脑中的功能区暴露模型以及复杂解剖模型。除此之外所有计量学数值中的重要参数都使用近场扫描系统DASY52 NEO进行仔细验证。

    l   电磁暴露系统对健康风险评估指导方针已被广泛接受并在继续扩大影响。(Kuster and Schönborn, 2000)

    l   在实践运用中的计量评估已有成熟的指导指南。(Kuster et al., 2006)

    l  这个大型的反射项目展示了一个细胞良好控制和EM充分曝光的新标准(sXc)。之后在全球范围内数以百计的运用了这种系统的衍生品。

    l   在执行过程中,电磁暴露系统的成本效益并未影响其质量的提升。

    l   Novel RF/ELF sXh电磁暴露系统也用到了在脑功能区ELF & RF电磁场影响的假设研究(Murbach et al., 2012)

    l   灵活性电磁暴露系统也用到了在脑功能区ELF & RF电磁场影响的假设研究。目前有40多个来自IT’IS的电磁暴露系统在世界范围内广泛应用。此细胞电磁暴露系统主要被使用在欧洲、亚洲和北美,约有30家应用安装。

     

    Exposure Systems

     

    Exposure systems are equipment or systems designed for the assessment of, for example, health risk, efficacy of therapies or mechanisms associated with exposure to electromagnetic fields. The systems designed by the IT'IS Foundation are the sX series, where sX stands for “System for eXposure” with options for cells (c), vertebrates (v), and humans (h).

    The commitment of the sXc/sXv/sXh exposure system group is to design, optimize, and build efficient and flexible exposure systems, which provide maximum homogeneity and control over a wide dynamic range, and with a large variety of signals; whilst monitoring all device conditions and environmental parameters; and supporting blinded protocols.

    Central to meaningful conclusions within any study is precise knowledge and control of the exposure conditions, this is termed dosimetry. At IT'IS the evaluation, optimization and fine tuning of the setups is performed using the simulation platform SEMCAD X. The dosimetric analysis includes many details such as precise meniscus models in Petri dishes or functional brain subregions in human head exposure and complex anatomical models. Furthermore all key parameters of the numerical dosimetry are carefully validated using the near-field scanning system DASY52 NEO.

     

    Selected Past Achievements

            Development of widely accepted guidelines for the development of exposure systems for health risk assessment (Kuster and Schönborn, 2000)

            Developed guidelines for best practice in dosimetric assessment (Kuster et al., 2006)

            The large REFLEX Project introduced a new standard for well-controlled and blinded EM exposure of cells (sXc). Hundreds of experiments were subsequently conducted worldwide using derivatives of these systems.

            Within the PERFORM Project, cost-effective in vivo exposure systems (sXv) without compromising exposure quality were developed.

            Novel RF/ELF sXh exposure system for hypotheses-driven research on effects of ELF & RF electromagnetic fields on brain functions (Murbach et al., 2012)

            Flexible exposure system for hypotheses-driven research on effects of ELF & RF electromagnetic fields on brain functions.

            Currently, there are more than 40 exposure systems from IT’IS used actively worldwide. The cell exposure systems contribute the greatest proportion with about 30 installations in Europe, Asia and Northern America.


    一、细胞电磁辐射暴露评估系统
     sXc


    sXc1950

    Designed to test radiofrequency electromagnetic field exposures from third generation (3G) mobile communication devices operating according to the UMTS standard. 2G modulation schemes such as GSM are also applicable. The setup is based on two R18 rectangular wave- guide chambers that are blindly excited by a fully computer-controlled signal unit.

    sXc1800

    Designed to test radiofrequency electromagnetic field exposures from mobile communication devices operating in the 1800 MHz region, such as GSM DCS and EDGE. The setup is based on two R18 rectangular waveguide chambers that are blindly excited by a fully computer-controlled signal unit.

    sXc900

    Designed to test radiofrequency electromagnetic field exposures from mobile communication devices in the 900 MHz region, such as GSM and DAMPS. The setup is based on two R9 rectangular waveguide chambers that are blindly excited by a fully computer-controlled signal unit.

    sXcTEM835

    Tests radiofrequency electro- magnetic field exposures from mobile communication devices operating in the 900 MHz region (additional frequencies upon request). The setup is based on two Crawford TEM cells that are blindly excited by a fully com- puter-controlled signal unit.

    sXcTEM027

    Tests radiofrequency electro- magnetic field exposures from mobile communication devices operating in the 27 MHz region (additional frequencies upon request). The setup is based on two Crawford TEM cells that are blindly excited by a fully com- puter-controlled signal unit.

    sXcELF

    Tests extremely low frequency magnetic field exposures from power distributing systems. The setup is based on two 4-coil systems that are blindly excited by a fully computer-controlled signal unit.

    sXcLive2450

    A miniature RF exposure system at 2450 MHz, which is integrated with a microscope system. State-of-the-art microscopic techniques, including confocal scanning and fluorescence microscopy, allow live cell imaging during exposure. In contrast to the classic approach of post analysis of cell responses, the instrument enables direct insight into the cell’s response to EMF.

    sXcLiveELF

    A miniature extremely low freq- uency (ELF) exposure system which is integrated with a microscope system. State-of-the-art microscopic techniques, including confocal scanning and fluorescence microscopy, allow live cell imaging during exposure. In contrast to the classic approach of post analysis of cell responses, direct insight into the cell’s response to EMF is enabled.


    1、细胞电磁辐射暴露评估系统 sXc1950

    sXc1950

    Designed to test radiofrequency electromagnetic field exposures from third generation (3G) mobile communication devices operating according to the UMTS standard. 2G modulation schemes such as GSM are also applicable. The setup is based on two R18 rectangular waveguide chambers that are blindly excited by a fully computer-controlled signal unit.


     Size

    Exposure setup (placed inside incubator)

    59 × 25 × 45 cm (d × w × h)

     

    Signal tower (beside incubator)

    60 × 60 × 80 cm (d × w × h)

     Cell Cultures

    Cell type

    cell monolayer (cell suspension and other configurations on request)

     

    Cell preparation

    monolayer: 6 Petri dishes (NUNC, ø = 35 mm) 
    suspension: 4 Petri dishes (NUNC, ø = 35 mm)

     

    Loading volume of cell medium

    60 cm³, 18.5 ml

     Signals

    Carrier frequency

    1950 MHz

     

    Modulation types

    WCDMA according 3GPP  /  2G TDMA

     

    Modulation schemes

    UMTS TPC 
    UMTS PCL (Power Control Level) 
    GSM nonDTX 
    GSM DTX 
    GSM talk 
    arbitrary pulse structure 
    continuous wave 
    any AM waveform of 64000 points on request
    WiFi Signal on request

     

    Intermittent exposure

    arbitrary on/off cycles with 10 s resolution

     Dosimetric Key  Parameters

    Peak SAR (50 W amplifier)

    monolayer: 60 W/kg 
    suspension: 25 W/kg

     

    Nonuniformity of the SAR distribution

    monolayer: < 30% 
    suspension: 40%

     

    Temperature rise for exposed cells

    monolayer: 0.02°C/(W/kg) 
    suspension: 0.13°C/(W/kg)

     Exposure and 
     Environmental Control

    · full software control of the exposure with self-detection of malfunctions
    · blinded exposure protocols 
    · incident field monitoring and feedback regulation by H-field loop sensors 
    · air temperature monitoring by Pt100 probes
    · monitoring of fan driving currents 
    · data logging every 10 s

     

    The complete bundle includes the waveguide chambers, signal tower, PC with software, and a suitable CO2incubator. Also included is installation of the setup at the target laboratory as well as personnel training sessions.


    2、细胞电磁辐射暴露评估系统 sXc1800 

    sXc1800


    Designed to test radiofrequency electromagnetic field exposures from mobile communication devices operating in the 1800 MHz region, such as GSM DCS and EDGE. The setup is based on two R18 rectangular waveguide chambers that are blindly excited by a fully computer-controlled signal unit.



    Size

    Exposure setup (placed inside incubator)

    50 × 25 × 45 cm (d × w × h)

     

    Signal tower (beside incubator)

    60 × 60 × 70 cm (d × w × h)

     Cell Cultures

    Cell type

    cell monolayer (cell suspension and other configurations on request)

     

    Cell preparation

    monolayer: 6 Petri dishes (NUNC, ø = 35 mm) 
    suspension: 4 Petri dishes (NUNC, ø = 35 mm)

     

    Loading volume of cell medium

    60 cm³, 18.5 ml

     Signals

    Carrier frequency

    1800 MHz

     

    Modulation schemes

    GSM nonDTX 
    GSM DTX
     
    GSM talk
     
    arbitrary pulse structure
     
    continuous wave
    any AM waveform of 64000 points on request

     

    Intermittent exposure

    arbitrary on/off cycles with 10 s resolution

     Dosimetric Key   Parameters

    Peak SAR (50 W amplifier)

    monolayer: 200 W/kg 
    suspension: 40 W/kg

     

    Nonuniformity of the SAR distribution

    monolayer: < 30% 
    suspension: 40%

     

    Temperature rise for exposed cells

    monolayer: 0.02°C/(W/kg) 
    suspension: 0.13°C/(W/kg)

     Exposure and 
     Environmental Control

    · full software control of the exposure with self-detection of malfunctions
    · blinded exposure protocols
     
    · incident field monitoring and feedback regulation by E-field monopole sensors
     
    · air temperature monitoring by Pt100 probes
    · monitoring of fan driving currents
     
    · data logging every 10 s

     

    The complete bundle includes the waveguide chambers, signal tower, PC with software, and a suitable CO2incubator. Also included is installation of the setup at the target laboratory as well as personnel training sessions.


    3、细胞电磁辐射暴露评估系统 sXc900

    sXc900


    Designed to test radiofrequency electromagnetic field exposures from mobile communication devices in the 900 MHz region, such as GSM and DAMPS. The setup is based on two R9 rectangular waveguide chambers that are blindly excited by a fully computer-controlled signal unit.

     Size

    60 × 56 × 60 cm (d × w × h)

     

    60 × 60 × 70 cm (d × w × h)

     Cell Cultures

    cell monolayer (cell suspension and other configurations on request)

     

    8 Petri dishes (NUNC, ø = 35 mm)

     

    80 cm³, 25 ml

     Signals

    835 MHz or 935 MHz

     

    GSM nonDTX 
    GSM DTX
     
    GSM talk
     
    arbitrary pulse structure
     
    continuous wave
    any AM waveform of 64000 points on request

     

    arbitrary on/off cycles with 10 s resolution

     Dosimetric Key  Parameters

    monolayer: 60 W/kg 
    suspension: 25 W/kg

     

    monolayer: 20% 
    suspension: 50%

     

    monolayer: 0.02°C/(W/kg) 
    suspension: 0.12°C/(W/kg)

     Exposure and 
     Environmental Control

     

    The complete bundle includes the waveguide chambers, signal tower, PC with software, and a suitable CO2incubator. Also included is installation of the setup at the target laboratory as well as personnel training sessions.


    4、细胞电磁辐射暴露评估系统 sXcTEM835

    sXcTEM835


    Tests radiofrequency electromagnetic field exposures from mobile communication devices operating in the 900 MHz region (additional frequencies upon request). The setup is based on two Crawford TEM cells that are blindly excited by a fully computer-controlled signal unit.

     Size

    30 × 40 × 60 cm (d × w × h)

     

    60 × 60 × 70 cm (d × w × h)

     Cell Cultures

    cell monolayer and cell suspension

     

    4 T25 flasks

     

    80 cm³, 20 ml

     Signals

    835 MHz, others on request

     

    GSM nonDTX 
    GSM DTX 
    GSM talk 
    arbitrary pulse structure 
    continuous wave 
    any AM waveform of 64000 points on request

     

    arbitrary on/off cycles with 10 s resolution

     Dosimetric Key  Parameters

    monolayer: 100 W/kg 
    suspension: 100 W/kg

     

    monolayer: 40% 
    suspension: 40%

     

    monolayer: 0.05°C/(W/kg) 
    suspension: 0.05°C/(W/kg)

     Exposure and 
     Environmental Control

     

    The complete bundle includes the waveguide chambers, signal tower, PC with software, and a suitable CO2incubator. Also included is installation of the setup at the target laboratory as well as personnel training sessions.


    5、细胞电磁辐射暴露评估系统 sXcTEM027 

    sXcTEM027


    Tests radiofrequency electromagnetic field exposures from mobile communication devices operating in the 27 MHz region (additional frequencies upon request). The setup is based on two Crawford TEM cells that are blindly excited by a fully computer-controlled signal unit.

     Size

    30 × 40 × 60 cm (d × w × h)

     

    60 × 60 × 70 cm (d × w × h)

     Cell Cultures

    cell monolayer

     

    6 Petri dishes (FALCON ø = 35 mm)

     

    60 cm³, 18.5 ml

     Signals

    27 MHz, others on request

     

    sinusoidal amplitude modulation (1Hz – 200KHz) 
    continuous wave

     

    arbitrary on/off cycles with 10 s temporal resolution

     Dosimetric Key 
     Parameters

    monolayer: 1.5 W/kg

     

    monolayer: 20%

     

    monolayer: 0.16°C/(W/kg)

     Exposure and 
     Environmental Control

     

    The complete bundle includes the waveguide chambers, signal tower, PC with software, and a suitable CO2incubator. Also included is installation of the setup at the target laboratory as well as personnel training sessions.


    6、细胞电磁辐射暴露评估系统sXcELF 

    sXcELF


    Tests extremely low frequency magnetic field exposures from power distributing systems. The setup is based on two 4-coil systems that are blindly excited by a fully computer-controlled signal unit.


     Size

    30 × 55 × 55 cm (d × w × h)

     

    60 × 50 × 40 cm (d × w × h)

     Cell Cultures

    cell monolayer or other configurations

     

    Petri dishes, multi-wells or flasks with diameters of up to 10 cm

     

    10 × 10 × 20 cm³

     Signals

    0.02 – 3.6 mTrms

     

    3 – 1250 Hz

     

    sinusoidal 
    power line worst case (harmonics up to 1250 Hz)
     
    any waveform with 64000 points

     

    arbitrary on/off cycles with 10 s temporal resolution

     Dosimetric Key  Parameters

    1%

     

    provided to user (dependent on exposure)

     

    sham isolation > 43dB 
    parasitic incident E-fields < 1V/m
    vibrations < 0.1 m/s²
     
    no temperature differences for exposure and sham

     Exposure and 
     Environmental Control

     

    The complete bundle includes the waveguide chambers, signal tower, PC with software, and a suitable CO2incubator. Also included is installation of the setup at the target laboratory as well as personnel training sessions.


    7、细胞电磁辐射暴露评估系统sXcLive2450

    sXcLive2450


    The sXcLive2450 is a miniature RF exposure system at 2450 MHz, which is integrated with a microscope system. State-of- the-art microscopic techniques, including confocal scanning and fluorescence microscopy, allow live cell imaging during expo- sure. In contrast to the classic approach of post analysis of cell responses, the instrument enables direct insight into the cell’s response to EMF.


     Size

    10 × 10 × 3 cm (d × w × h)

     

    60 × 60 × 80 cm (d × w × h)

     

    40 × 40 × 10 cm (d × w × h)

     Cell Cultures

    cell monolayer

     

    on plate in the live imaging module

     

    ø = 10 mm, 3.1 cm³

     Signals

    2450 MHz

     

    WiFi modulation 
    arbitrary pulse structure 
    continuous wave 
    any AM waveform of 64000 points on request 

     

    arbitrary on/off cycles with 10 s resolution

     Dosimetric Key  Parameters

    (3mm radius): 0.13dB

     

    >100 W/kg for 1 W input power

     Exposure and 
     Environmental Control

     

    The complete bundle includes the exposure cavity, signal tower and PC with controlling software. Also included is installation of the setup at the target laboratory as well as personnel training sessions. The live imaging microscope/incubator is not included.


    8、细胞电磁辐射暴露评估系统sXcLiveELF

    sXcLiveELF


    The sXcLiveELF is a miniature extremely low frequency (ELF) exposure system which is integrated with a microscope system. State-of-the-art microscopic techniques, including confocal scanning and fluorescence microscopy, allow live cell imaging during exposure. In contrast to the classic approach of post analysis of cell responses, the instrument enables direct insight into the cell’s response to EMF.


     Size

    4 × 4 × 2 cm (d × w × h)

     

    80 × 80 × 60 cm (d × w × h)

     

    40 × 40 × 10 cm (d × w × h)

     Cell Cultures

    cell monolayer 

     

    on plate in the live imaging module

     

    ø = 10 mm, 3.1 cm³

     Signals

    up to 6 mTrms

     

    3 – 1250 Hz

     

    sinusoidal 
    power line worst case (harmonics up to 1250 Hz) 
    any waveform with 64000 points

     

    arbitrary on/off cycles with 10 s temporal resolution

     Dosimetric Key  Parameters

    1%

     

    controlled temperature differences for exposure and sham remain below 0.1°C

     Exposure and 
     Environmental Control

     

    The complete bundle includes the exposure cavity, signal tower and PC with controlling software. Also included is installation of the setup at the target laboratory as well as personnel training sessions. The live imaging microscope/incubator is not included.

     


    二、动物电磁辐射暴露评估系统 sXv

      

    sXv1800–2450

    The sXv1800 – 2450 system is designed to expose 2 × 6 cages with 2 mice to RF frequencies in the range of 1800 to 2450 MHz. The reverberation chamber de- sign allows unrestrained motion of the rodents inside their cages.

    sXv27

    The sXv27 system is designed to expose 2 × 8 cages with 2 mice each to 27 MHz RF signals. The resonant TEM cell design allows unrestrained motion of the rodents inside their cages.


     1、动物电磁辐射暴露评估系统sXv1800–2450    

    sXv1800–2450


    The sXv1800–2450 system is designed to expose 2 × 6 cages with 2 mice each to RF frequencies in the range of 1800 to 2450 MHz. The reverberation chamber design allows unrestrained motion of the rodents inside their cages.


     Size

    90 × 90 × 130 cm (d × w × h) (reverberation chamber)
    70 × 65 × 100 cm (d × w × h)
     (exposure element)

     

    40 × 40 × 5 cm (d × w × h)

     Signals

    1800 – 2450 MHz

     

    UMTS 3G  /  WiFi  /  continuous wave

     

    arbitrary on/off cycles with 10 s temporal resolution

     Exposure

    2 mice × up to 6 cages × 2 chambers

     Dosimetric Key  Parameters

    0.3 dB

     

    0.35 dB

     

    >15 W/kg

     Exposure Control

     

    The complete bundle includes the exposure cavities, signal tower and PC with controlling software. Also included is installation of the setup at the target laboratory as well as personnel training sessions.

         

          2、动物电磁辐射暴露评估系统sXv27

    sXv27


    The sXv27 system is designed to expose 2 × 8 cages with 2 mice each to 27 MHz RF signals. The resonant TEM cell design allows unrestrained motion of the rodents inside their cages.


     Size

    182 × 100 × 50 cm (d × w × h)
    resonator coaxial cable 2 × 181.5cm (including connectors)

     

    40 × 40 × 10 cm (d × w × h)

     Signals

    27 MHz

     

    1 Hz – 200 kHz sinusoidal modulation (sequentially adjustable with 1 s resolution) 
    continuous wave

     

    arbitrary on/off cycles with 10 s temporal resolution

     Exposure

    2 mice × 8 cages × 2 chambers

     Dosimetric Key 
     Parameters

    0.45 dB

     

    41 V/m for 1 W input power in the non-resonant case

     

    >1 W/kg

     Exposure Control

     

    The complete bundle includes the exposure cavities, signal tower and PC with controlling software. Also included is installation of the setup at the target laboratory as well as personnel training sessions.



    三、人体电磁辐射暴露评估系统sXh


    sXh900/2140

    The sXh900 and sXh2140 expo- sure systems are designed to perform human provocation studies in the GSM and UMTS mobile bands. They are based on patch antennas mounted on the side of the volunteer’s head. The antennas are covered with plastic boxes, such that the two systems are not visually distinguishable.

    sXhs900

    The sXhS900 exposure system allows overnight exposure of the subject using a polarized antenna mounted above the volunteers bed. The circular field pattern reduces attenuation caused by EEG leads.

    sXhELF

    The setup is able to perform human studies and is based on a low-weight patch antenna that is excited by a fully computer- controlled signal unit. The ant- enna is mounted on a headset which can be worn by subjects in a glasses-like manner (a linkage carries the weight of the head- set).


    1、人体电磁辐射暴露评估系统 sXh900/2140 

    sXh900/sXh2140


    The sXh900 and sXh2140 ex- posure systems are designed to perform human provocation studies in the GSM and UMTS mobile bands. They are based on patch antennas mounted on the side of the volunteer’s head. The antennas are covered with plastic boxes, such that the two systems are not visually distin- guishable.


     Size

    40 × 40 × 30 cm (d × w × h)

     

    60 × 60 × 90 cm (d × w × h)

     Signals

    900 MHz and 2140 MHz

     

    GSM modulation schemes 
    UMTS/3G modulation schemes
     
    arbitrary pulse structure
     
    continuous wave
    any AM waveform of 64000 points on request

     

    arbitrary on/off cycles with 10 s resolution

     Dosimetry

    up to 25 W/kg

     

    unilateral head hemisphere

     

    deep brain SAR     ~ 1/10 SAR in cortex (900 MHz) 
    ~ 1/100 SAR in cortex (2140 MHz)

     

    functional brain tissue specific including uncertainty due to intersubject variability

     Exposure Control

     

    The complete bundle includes the exposure apparatus, signal tower and PC with controlling software. Also included is installation of the setup at the target laboratory as well as personnel training sessions.


         2、 人体电磁辐射暴露评估系统 sXh S900

    sXhS900


    The sXhS900 exposure system allows overnight exposure of the subject using a polarized antenna mounted above the volunteers bed. The circular field pattern reduces attenuation caused by EEG leads.


     Size

    40 × 40 × 40 cm (d × w × h)

     

    60 × 60 × 90 cm (d × w × h)

     Signals

    900 MHz 

     

    GSM modulation schemes 
    UMTS/3G modulation schemes 
    arbitrary pulse structure 
    continuous wave
    any AM waveform of 64000 points on request

     

    arbitrary on/off cycles with 10 s resolution

     Dosimetry

    up to 3 W/kg

     

    whole body exposure, with focus on the head penetration depth

     

    deep brain SAR 
    ~ 1/10 SAR in cortex (900 MHz) 

     

    functional brain tissue specific including uncertainty due to intersubject variability

     Exposure Control

     

    The complete bundle includes the exposure apparatus, signal tower and PC with controlling software. Also included is installation of the setup at the target laboratory as well as personnel training sessions.


          3、 人体电磁辐射暴露评估系统 sXhELF

    sXhELF


    The setup is able to perform human studies and is based on a low-weight patch antenna that is excited by a fully computer-controlled signal unit. The antenna is mounted on a headset which can be worn by subjects in a glasses-like manner (a linkage carries the weight of the headset).


     Size

    Exposure setup (worn by the subjects or mounted on stands)

    45 × 45 × 45 cm (d × w × h)

     

    Signal tower

    60 × 60 × 90 cm (d × w × h)

     Signals

    B-field dynamic range

    up to 1 mTrms (800 A/mrms)

     

    B-field frequency range

    3 – 1250 Hz

     

    B-field waveform

    sinusoidal 
    power line worst case (harmonics up to 1250 Hz) 
    any waveform with 64000 points

     

    Intermittent exposure

    arbitrary on/off cycles with 10 s temporal resolution

     Dosimetry

    The maximum ELF magnetic field exposure of the brain

    800 A/m (50 Hz) 
    140 A/m (1 kHz)

     

    Nonuniformity of the B-field distribution

    8%

     Exposure Control

    · full software control of the exposure with self-detection of malfunctions
    · immediate abortion in case of overexposure
    · blinded exposure protocols 
    · radiated power monitoring and feedback regulation by power sensors
    · data logging every 10 s

     

    The complete bundle includes the headset, signal tower and PC with controlling software. Also included is installation of the setup at the target laboratory as well as personnel training sessions.


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